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Name of Media:

The impact of continuous haemofiltration with high-volume fluid exchange during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery on the recovery of patients with impaired renal function: a pilot randomised trial

Author(s):

Matata B, Mediratta N, Morgan M, Shirley S, Scawn N, Kemp I, Stables R, Haycox A, Houten R, Richards S, McLeod C, Lane S, Sharma A, Wilson K.

Publisher or Source:

NIHR Journals Library – Health Technology Assessment

Type of Media:

Medical Journal

Media Originally for:

Critical Care Physicians

Country of Origin:

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the)

Primary Focus of Media:

Pre-Use of PICS Designation

COVID-19 Related:

No

Description:

BACKGROUND
There is widespread variability in clinical practice within cardiac surgery units worldwide on the use of haemofiltration. The clinical impact and safety of this modality is, however, unknown.
OBJECTIVES
The primary pilot trial objectives were as follows: to assess the feasibility of randomising 60 patients with impaired kidney function undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery within 6 months; to assess the suitability and reliability of our chosen outcome measures; to explore issues that may impact on recruitment into a definitive trial; and to undertake an exploratory economic evaluation.
DESIGN
A pilot, single-centre, open-label randomised trial.
SETTING
Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital NHS Foundation Trust between November 2010 and March 2012.
PARTICIPANTS
Men and women, aged >â 18 years of age, undergoing on-pump CABG surgery, who had pre-operative impaired kidney function indicated by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <â 60â ml/minute adjusted for 1.73â m(2) of body surface area.
INTERVENTIONS
Group 1: patients who received haemofiltration during bypass (experimental group). Group 2: patients who did not receive haemofiltration during bypass (control group).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
(1) Feasibility outcome measures: barriers to recruitment to a larger trial were documented as observations made during the recruitment period of the trial. Reliability of data collection methods was monitored using a 13-point case record form validation check for data entry against the patient clinical notes and the trial database. (2) The main clinical outcomes were frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) stay of duration >â 3 days and the length of ICU stay days. (3) Other clinical outcomes were the need for postoperative haemofiltration in the ICU, mechanical ventilation time, hospital stay, composite of outcome of unfavourable perioperative events and eGFR values at 6 weeks' follow-up. (4) Secondary health economic feasibility outcomes.
RESULTS
Recruitment into the pilot trial was from 21 November 2010 to 30 March 2012. Thirty-seven eligible patients were consented and successfully randomised into the trial arms (30%). The main issues impacting on recruitment were the high volume of off-pump CABG surgery within the centre; recruitment being restricted to research nurses' working hours of the week; issues arising associated with the screening process for identifying prospective eligible patients based on eGFR values; protocol deviations/treatment crossovers; and unexpected outbreaks of pandemic influenza and other infectious conditions. The data collection process was sufficiently robust, with few errors detected. The length of ICU stay days was deemed a suitable primary outcome. There was an overall trend towards reduction in the length of ICU stay for patients who were given intraoperative haemofiltration, more so for those with diabetes. The economic evaluation estimated that the incremental costs per person were £1744 lower for the intraoperative haemofiltration group, while the incremental benefits per person increased by 0.11.
CONCLUSION
Given sufficient resources and broadening of the inclusion criteria, the recruitment into a larger multicentre trial is feasible and may demonstrate potential clinical and cost benefits of using intraoperative haemofiltration in this group of patients. However, owing to the small sample size in this pilot trial, no firm conclusions can be drawn from the findings at this stage. The outcomes of this pilot study are very encouraging and suggest that it is feasible to design a continuous superiority trial with the length of ICU stay days or time to tracheal extubation as the primary outcome measure, provided that guidelines for avoiding bias are implemented. An alternative primary outcome measure that avoids bias is mortality. The inclusion criteria should also be widened to include all cardiac surgery patients with impaired renal function.

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