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ICU Admission Muscle and Fat Mass, Survival, and Disability at Discharge

Ariel Jaitovich, MD; Malik M. H. S. Khan, MD; Ria Itty, MD; Hau C. Chieng, DO; Camille L. Dumas, DO; Pallavi Nadendla, MD; John P. Fantauzzi, MD; Recai M. Yucel, PhD; Paul J. Feustel, PhD; and Marc A. Judson, MD

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Medical Journal

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Critical Care Physicians, Nurses and/or Other Critical Care Medical Professionals

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BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle dysfunction occurring as a result of ICU admission associates with higher mortality. Although preadmission higher BMI correlates with better outcomes, the impact of baseline muscle and fat mass has not been defined. We therefore investigated the association of skeletal muscle and fat mass at ICU admission with survival and disability at hospital discharge.
METHODS: This single-center, prospective, observational cohort study included medical ICU (MICU) patients from an academic institution in the Unites States. A total of 401 patients were evaluated with pectoralis muscle area (PMA) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) determinations conducted by CT scanning at the time of ICU admission, which were later correlated with clinical outcomes accounting for potential confounders.
RESULTS: Larger admission PMA was associated with better outcomes, including higher 6month survival (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P < .001), lower hospital mortality (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98; P < .001), and more ICU-free days (slope, 0.044 0.019; P 1⁄4 .021). SAT was not significantly associated with any of the measured outcomes. In multivariable analyses, PMA association persisted with 6 months and hospital survival and ICU-free days, whereas SAT remained unassociated with survival or other outcomes. PMA was not associated with regaining of independence at the time of hospital discharge (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98-1.01; P 1⁄4 .56).
CONCLUSIONS: In this study cohort, ICU admission PMA was associated with survival during and following critical illness; it was unable to predict regaining an independent lifestyle following discharge. ICU admission SAT mass was not associated with survival or other measured outcomes.

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